Specifications and Standards

Specifications and Standards

This list of US national thermal-spray standards has been compiled by Bob Sulit, as one of the activities of the Thermal Spray Society's Information Development and Delivery Committee. This listing includes those currently published and in-preparation for the United States. Each listing includes the title, number, issue date, abstract, publication (or preparation) organization, and availability. Published standards are available from the hyperlink address.

United States Published Standards

  1. ASTM C 633-01, Standard Test Method for Adhesion or Cohesion Strength of Thermal Spray Coatings. This test method covers the determination of the degree of adhesion (bonding strength) of a coating to a substrate or the cohesion strength of the coating in a tension normal to the surface. The test consists of coating one face of a substrate fixture, bonding this coating to the face of a loading fixture, and subjecting this assembly of coating and fixtures to a tensile load normal to the plane of the coating. It is adapted particularly for testing coatings applied by thermal spray, which is defined to include the combustion flame, plasma arc, two-wire arc, high-velocity oxygen fuel, and detonation processes for spraying feedstock, which may be in the form of, wire, rod, or powder.

  2. ASTM D 4541-02, Test Method for Pull-Off Strength of Coating Using Portable Adhesion Testers. This test method covers a procedure for evaluating the pull-off strength (commonly referred to as adhesion) of a coating by determining either the greatest perpendicular force (in tension) that a surface area can bear before a plug of material is detached, or whether the surface remains intact at a prescribed force (pass/fail). Failure will occur along the weakest plane within the system comprised of the test fixture, adhesive, coating system, and substrate. This test method maximized tensile stress as compared to the shear stress applied by other methods, such as a scratch or knife adhesion, and the results may not be comparable. Further, pull-off strength measurements depend upon both material and instrumental parameters. Results obtained using different devices or results for the same coating on substrates having different stiffness may not be comparable.

  3. ANSI/AWS C2.16/C2.16M:2002, Guide for Thermal Spray Operator Qualification. This guide recommends thermal spray operator qualification procedures. It covers applicable documents relating to thermal spray equipment, consumables, and safety. It also contains operator qualification and coating system analysis form. Note: This standard is being revised; see C2.16A standard in preparation.

  4. AWS C2.18-93, Guide for the Protection of Steel with Thermal Sprayed Coatings of Aluminum and Zinc and Their Alloys and Composites. This guide sets forth recommended thermal spray operator qualification procedures. It covers applicable documents relating to thermal spray equipment consumables, and safety. It also contains operator qualification and coating analysis forms. Note: This standard is being revised; see C2.18A Part A and Part B standard in preparation.

  5. SSPC CS 23.00(I), Interim Specification for the Application of Thermal Spray Coatings (Metallizing) of Aluminum, Zinc and Their Alloys and Composites for the Corrosion Protection of Steel, March 1, 2000. This interim specification covers the requirements of thermal spray metallic coatings, with and without, sealers and topcoats, as a means to prevent the corrosion of steel surfaces. Types of metallic coatings include pure zinc, pure aluminum and zinc/aluminum alloy, 85% zinc/15%luminum by weight. Available from http://www.sspc.org. Note: This standard is being incorporated into AWS C2.18A/NACE RPXXXX-2002/SSPC CS 23.00A Part A, standard in preparation.

  6. MIL-STD-1687A(SH), Thermal spray processes for naval ship machinery applications. This standard covers thermal-spray processes for machinery element repair of ferrous and non-ferrous substrates. Included are requirements for the qualification of thermal spray procedures and operators, requirements and guidance for use of thermal spray material and equipment, quality assurance requirements, and descriptions of applicable qualification tests. This standard is withdrawn with no replacement available.

  7. MIL-STD-2138A(SH), Metal sprayed coatings for corrosion protection aboard naval ships. This standard covers the requirements for the use of metal-sprayed coatings (Aluminum) for corrosion control applications on board naval ships. This standards covers certification of facilities, certification of operators, application procedures, metal-spray procedures, and production quality assurance (including test procedures and records).

 

United States Standards In Preparation

 

  1. AWS C2.16A-XX, Guide for Thermal Spray Operator Qualification, CD #4, June 4, 2001 (77 pages). This standard establishes 11 thermal spray operator qualifications classes in 4 thermal spraying-process categories, flame, arc, plasma, and HVOF. Knowledge and skill qualification tests are detailed. Qualification is continuous as long as the thermal spray operator maintains satisfactory performance including a minimum of 8 hours production work per six months for each qualification category. (1997-present time).

  2. AWS C2-18A, NACE RPXXXX-2002, and SSPC CS 23.00A, Part A, Specification for the Application of Thermal Spray Coatings (Metallizing) of Aluminum, Zinc, and Their Alloys and Composites for the Corrosion Protection of Steel, Draft #3, 2001-05-22 (45 pages). This standard is a procedure for the application of metallic thermal spray coatings (TSC) of aluminum, zinc, and their alloys and composites for the corrosion protection of steel. Required equipment, application procedures, and in-process quality control (QC) checkpoints are specified. This standard may be used as a procurement document. Appendices include a "model procurement specification." Note: This standard is the update will be the permanent standard to replace the interim standard SSPC CS 23.00(I). (1999-present).

  3. AWS C2-18A, NACE RPXXXX-2002, and SSPC CS 23.00A, Application of Thermal Spray Coatings (Metallizing) of Aluminum, Zinc, and Their Alloys and Composites for the Corrosion Protection of Steel, Part B: Guide, Draft #2, 2001-10-10 (47 pages). This Guide presents additional information and recommendations on safety, selection of thermal spray coatings (TSC), inspection guide and checkoff list, bend testing, thermal spray-operator qualification, thermal spray-equipment qualification, and the maintenance and repair of TSCs. (1993–present).

  4. AWS C2.19-XX, Machine Element Repair with Thermal Spray Coatings, CD #3, May 5, 2000 (52 pages). This standard covers thermal spray processes for machinery element repair of ferrous and non-ferrous substrates. Included are requirements for the qualification of thermal spray procedures and operators, requirements and guidance for use of thermal spray material and equipment, quality assurance requirements, and descriptions of applicable qualification tests. Note: The Navy (Charles Null, NAVSEA Code 05M2) requested AWS incorporate MIL-STD-1687A(SH) into an AWS standard, April 1998. (1998–present).

  5. AWS C2.20-XX, Specification for Thermal Spraying Zinc Anodes on Steel Reinforced Concrete, CD #3, January 16, 2001 (25 pages). This AWS standard is a specification for thermal spraying zinc anodes on steel reinforced concrete. The scope includes: job description, safety, pass/fail job reference standards, feedstock materials, equipment, a step-by-step process instruction for surface preparation, thermal spraying, and quality control. There are three annexes: job control record, operator qualification, and portable adhesion testing. (1995-present).

  6. AWS C2.21-XX, Specification for Thermal Spray Equipment Acceptance Inspection, WD-4, May 15, 1998 (19 pages). This standard specifies the thermal spray equipment acceptance requirements for plasma, arc-wire, flame-powder, -wire, -rod, and -cord, and high-velocity-oxygen-fuel (HVOF) equipment. The equipment supplier shall provide proof of suitability. Example inspection reports are provided in four non-mandatory appendices.

  7. AWS C2.25-XX, Specification for Solid and Composite Wires, and Ceramic Rods for Thermal Spraying, DS 1, 7-11-2001 (25 pages). This specification defines the as-manufactured, chemical composition classification requirements for solid and composite wires and ceramic rods for thermal spraying. Requirements for standard sizes, marking, manufacturing, and packaging are included. 100 materials are listed. (1985-present).

  8. SSPC-QP 6, Standard Procedure for Evaluating Qualifications of Thermal Spray (Metallizing) Applicators, Draft #2, 2001-21 (23 pages). This standard describes a method for evaluating the qualification of thermal spray (metallizing) applicators to apply thermal-spray coatings per SSPC CS 23.00(I), "Interim Specification for the Application of Thermal Spray Coatings (Metallizing) of Aluminum, Zinc and Their Alloys and Composites for the Corrosion Protection of Steel," (latest edition), i.e., the surface preparation, thermal spraying, and sealing or sealing and topcoating of components/assemblies in the shop and complex structures in the field. These procedures are applicable to a fabricating shop, shipyard, or other entity that applies coatings in the shop, even though providing coating application services is not the primary function. (2001-present).

British/International Standards

This listing of Thermal Spray related Standards has been provided courtesy of the Thermal Spraying and Surface Engineering Association, Ivor Huff, Secretary. Holding the secretariat of the BSI committee STI/40 the TSSEA continues to provide UK input to the European Committee, CEN/ TC 240. This committee is comprised of spokesman/delegates representing each of the member states in the community.

ISO are informed of CEN proposals and they may choose to participate in their development by making comments at each stage of the discussions. Such a dual document is finally subject to parallel voting. When finally approved, the standard will be identified in the UK as BS EN ISO. Others are designated BS EN followed by the number.

ISO standards are available from ASM's Standards Store; all others can be purchased through the TSSEA web site TSSEA members receive a 50% discount; add 10% handling charge, minimum £3.00)

 

BS EN 582: 1993

Determination of tensile strength.

BS EN 657: 1994

Terminology, classification. (Revision in progress)

BS EN 22063: 1994

Metal and other inorganic coatings - Thermal Spraying - Zinc, Alumium and their alloys. (Updated standard to be available in the near future)

BS EN 1395: 1996

Acceptance Inspection of Thermal Spraying Equipment

BS EN 1274: 1997

Powders - Composition - Technical supply conditions. (Revision in progress)

BS EN ISO 14920

Spraying and fusing of thermally sprayed coatings of self fluxing alloys.

BS EN ISO 14918: 1998

Approval Testing of Thermal Sprayers.

BS EN ISO 14922 - 1, 2, 3, 4: 1999

Quality requirements of thermally sprayed coatings Parts 1, 2, 3, 4

BS EN ISO 14919: 2001

Wires, Rods and Cords for Flame and Arc spraying

BS EN ISO 14921: 2001

Procedures for the application of thermally sprayed coatings for engineering components

BS EN 13214: 2001

Tasks and responsibilities

BS EN 13507: 2001

Pre Treatment of surfaces of metallic components for thermal spraying.

Quality requirements of thermally sprayed coatings Parts 1, 2, 3, 4 BS EN ISO 14919: 2001 Wires, Rods and Cords for Flame and Arc spraying BS EN ISO 14921: 2001 Procedures for the application of thermally sprayed coatings for engineering components BS EN 13214: 2001 Tasks and responsibilities BS EN 13507: 2001 Pre Treatment of surfaces of metallic components for thermal spraying. Quality requirements of thermally sprayed coatings Parts 1, 2, 3, 4 BS EN ISO 14919: 2001 Wires, Rods and Cords for Flame and Arc spraying
BS EN ISO 14921: 2001 Procedures for the application of thermally sprayed coatings for engineering components BS EN 13214: 2001 Tasks and responsibilities BS EN 13507: 2001 Pre Treatment of surfaces of metallic components for thermal spraying.

Note that existing standards are subject to review, normally after 5 years.

Other topics which are still in public enquiry or discussion stages include:

  • Post treatment and finishing of thermally sprayed coatings

  • Characterisation and Testing of thermally sprayed coatings For publication early 2002

  • Coatings for protection against corrosion and oxidation at elevated temperatures

  • Determination of the deposit efficiency At public enquiry stage

New Work Proposals
 
  • Symbolic representation on drawings

  • Recommendations for thermal spraying